After a series of taped interviews (1989, 1994, 2000), Cranbrook Archivist Mark Coir urged me to put in my own words that which I had discussed with him. I have tried to do so on my website; my way of writing. As he was ending the last of the tapes, Mark posed a final question. He asked me, “How do you want to remembered; for what achievements?” I have been puzzling that question ever since…..
I thought of my days at the Corcoran and my achievements: ‘The American Collection’; exhibitions; publications; the creation and accreditation of a professional BFA program in the School. However, I knew Mark was asking specifically about my days at Cranbrook…….
Carl Milles: Orpheous Fountain, 1936. figure (restored 1986)
The Cranbrook Collection & Saarinen House
I did give an immediate response to Mark, saying that I thought that the exhibition and catalog ‘Design in America: The Cranbrook Vision 1925-50’ and the restoration of Saarinen House were among my achievements; as was the ‘Cranbrook Collection’. I have written about the collection and restoration but not about the exhibition….
The Cranbrook Vision
Soon after my arrival at Cranbrook, the director of the Detroit Institute of Arts, Fred Cummings, invited me to lunch. We sat in his office and talked; Fred said that he was most interested in organizing an exhibition on Cranbrook. Later, we met again and he said he was moving forward and, indeed, had appointed a curator to work on the exhibit. In an ironic twist, Fred appointed Davira Tarrigan. She was the graduate student who had drafted the essay on William Wilson Corcoran for the Bicentennial exhibition at the Corcoran, celebrating the founder. Now, she was to work with me again; this time on an exhibition and catalog on a celebration of Cranbrook!
In the publication, “Design in America: The Cranbrook Vision 1925-50”, the preface reiterates this saying: “The idea of a show that would present the history of Cranbrook in its early years was first suggested by Frederick J. Cummings in early 1978. This idea was immediately and enthusiastically taken up by Roy Slade, President of the Academy, who, since his arrival in 1977, had been aware of the extraordinary level of achievement that marked the institution’s beginnings. At the same time, the Metropolitan Museum of Art was exploring the idea of an international exhibition devoted to Eliel and Eero Saarinen; a meeting between Slade and R. Craig Miller, Assistant Curator in The American Wing of the Metropolitan Museum of Art who was completing his doctorial research on the Saarinens, led to a joint venture by the three institutions. The Metropolitan’s participation in the organization of the show was secured with the support of James Pilgrim, Deputy Director, and Lewis Sharpe, Curator and Administrator of the Department of American Art. A group of scholars was then invited to serve on a Scientific Committee to organize the exhibition; their contributions to the realization of the show and enthusiastic involvement in the assembling of this catalogue cannot be overestimated.”
In the preface, written by Cummings and Philippe de Montebello, Director of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, countless individuals were acknowledged. I was gratified by their statement that “The assistance of Cranbrook of Art, particularly of its President, Roy Slade, who has been continuously involved in the development of the exhibition, has been crucial; the show would not have been conceived without his participation.”
I could add my thanks to many, indeed all, of the individuals mentioned but one individual deserves my personal gratitude. James Pilgrim, now deceased, was a dear friend. Jim was curator at the Corcoran when I became Dean in 1970; we had many arguments and conflicts, particularly over space. At the same time, I began to socialize with him and his wife Dianne; we went to art exhibitions together. We would go to private galleries on Saturday mornings; Jim called them ‘artathons’! He learnt a lot about contemporary art while I began to understand museums as never before; I am eternally grateful to Jim for that and for his support at the Met. Without his calming influence and ongoing reassurances, the Cranbrook exhibit may not have moved forward; tensions did exist between individuals and institutions. Enough said!
I have the highest admiration for Philippe de Montebello; his commitment to and support of the Cranbrook endeavor were critical and appreciated. Philippe was most gracious in every way. I had first met him when he was director of the Houston Museum of Art; my first impression, one that remains to this day, was of an imposing intellectual and sensitive scholar. I met him again at meetings of the Association of Art Museum Directors; he served on the AAMD Education Committee, which I chaired. Philippe kindly hosted a meeting in his office; he is committed to museum education. Of course, his achievements during his tenure at the Met are appreciated and admirable. Philippe de Montebello enhanced and enriched the museum, its galleries and collections, beyond belief; his accomplishments benefit us, our country and culture.
The story of the preparation and politics involving the Cranbrook exhibition and catalogue could be a book in itself; as could the raising of funds and organizing a show of this magnitude. Endless meetings occurred; I spent so much time at the Met that some thought I was on the staff. At one of the early meetings the curators and scholars agreed on the title; I was delighted that their choice reflected design in America was synonymous with the Cranbrook vision!
I will tell of one humorous moment in Finland; that will suffice. Craig Miller and I were at Vistrrak, the original home of Eliel Saarinen; our hosts had arranged for us to use the sauna. After the scalding sauna, we were urged to swim in the lake; we ran along a pier and jumped into the water, icy cold. We shrieked and turned for the shore; mothers were wheeling perambulators and fathers walking with their families. Vistrakk is a park as well as Saarinen’s home. Craig and I looked at one another and I said “It’s either our honor or our lives!” He agreed and we fled naked from the lake and no one gave us a glance; this was Scandinavia!
1 and 2 : The Detroit Institute of Arts: exterior with banner and entrance to Cranbrook exhibit with boys' school gates. 3 : The Metropolitan Museum of Art : contemporary design with Ray & Charles Eames and Eero Saarinen, Knoll Furniture in Cranbrook exhibit 4 : Magazines and articles on Cranbrook. B&W below : The Met banner of "The Cranbrook Vision"!
The exhibition opened at the Detroit Institute of Arts in December 1983. The crowds were overwhelming; as was the attendance at the lecture I gave there on Cranbrook. In that coming year, the press and national acclaim was staggering from throughout the world. Indeed, I mounted the reviews and articles on big boards; over 200 hundred of these boards, each with different articles and photographs, filled the walls of our museum’s south gallery, then the lecture hall. Again, I was gratified.
The show came to the Metropolitan Museum of Art that following April; I was staying across the avenue at the Stanhope. I received a phone call and was told to look out of the window; I did, to see a huge banner unfurled in front of the museum. The banner was for the exhibition on Cranbrook; those letters were writ large! The banner was hung between two others but took center place, hanging directly over the entrance to the Met, one of the greatest museums in the world. The room bell rang and a busboy stood with a bottle of champagne on ice; Agnes and I toasted the banner in one of the proudest moments of my career and life.
Metropolitan Museum of Art: many receptions were hosted for the Cranbrook exhibit. Governor James Blanchard is seen here at the State Of Michigan reception; on the left, actor Norman Fell of TV series "Three's Company". 1984.
The exhibition made a triumphant debut in Helsinki; one of Finland’s native sons and genius, Eliel Saarinen, was being recognized and honored. The outpouring of national pride was obvious; the Finns are proud of their independence, gained in 1917. As their national flag, the reverse of the Greek flag was chosen; reflecting the Finnish commitment to culture. On an island in Helsinki harbor, a small replica of the Acropolis welcomes visitors; Finland has a reputation for fine design, good architecture, stirring music, discos, vodka, saunas and seafood. I mention the latter because of party given in our honor, held at the famed restaurant designed by Alvar Alto. Agnes and I were sitting at the head table; next to us was our dear young friend, Kippy Swanson, grand daughter of Eliel Saarinen. The meal started and bowls of crayfish were served.
Carl Milles: studio, Millesgarden, Stockholm.
On an earlier visit to Sweden, a dinner had been given in my honor; held at Millesgarden. Twelve of us sat around a table in the studio of Carl Milles; the sculptures lit by flickering candlelight. The evening was memorable; made more so by the abundance of crayfish and vodka! Agnes and I realized that crayfish was the main and only course; we indulged ourselves.
At the dinner in Helsinki, we remembered this and advised Kippy to dig in and eat hearty; crayfish was the meal. We did notice our fellow diners, the Finns, delicately selecting and slowly nibbling a crayfish; not us, we gorged ourselves on what we thought was the dinner but not so! That evening, the crayfish was the appetizer! Much to our surprise, we were served fish and venison, course after course. We were to learn, much to our embarrassment, that the crayfish at that time was an expensive delicacy; one or two should suffice, not so for us!
On my first visit to Finland in 1979, I was met at the Helsinki airport by Juhani Pallasama, the architect who had visited me earlier at Cranbrook. Our immediate friendship was heartfelt and led to a renewal of relationships between Finland and Cranbrook; beneficial to both and ongoing to this day. He said he was driving me to the hotel and then he was off to a party celebrating Midsummer Day. Juhani thought that after a transatlantic flight I would be too tired to party; not me! We squeezed into his Volkswagen bug and drove off into the country. As we approached the farm of our hosts, he said that people would be partying, taking saunas in the nude; this was Finland. Ah well, when in Rome, do as the Romans do; the same is true in Finland?!
The next day I sent a postcard back to the office, on which I wrote, “In Finland, in a sauna, in the nude, in trouble!” Over the years, I have been entertained lavishly on my visits to Finland. My friends and colleagues gave many dinners and parties in my honor as President of Cranbrook. In some small way, I felt this major exhibition and publication “Design in America” was a way of thanking them. The people of Finland were proud of the recognition and acclaim brought to Eliel Saarinen and to their nation.
Knighthoods ‘Sir Sir’
Presentation of the Order of the White Rose of Finland at Saarinen House 1985. RS, Council General Erik Heinrichs, and, grandsons of Eliel Saarinen, Robert and Ron Swanson.
As a Brit, my knighthoods mean so much to me; I feel fortunate that my mother was alive when I was knighted by Finland. She appreciated the honor and was in awe as was I; we were the only ones? My mother was present at the ceremony in Saarinen House, June 1985, when Erik Heinrichs, Council General of Finland, flew in from New York to present Finland’s most prestigious decoration. The award was given for the international acclaim and renewed recognition that had come to Eliel Saarinen and Finland through the 1983/4 Cranbrook exhibition; publication; articles and press. I was honored and proud to be made Knight First Class, Order of the White Rose of Finland.
More was to come later, most unexpectedly in 1994. Our dear friends, Pat and Jan Hartmann invited Agnes and me to dinner. Pat was chair of the Academy Board of Governors; both she and Jan were CEC Trustees. Jan Hartmann, born in Stockholm, was Honorary Swedish Consul for the State of Michigan. We were having dinner, the four of us, at the Bloomfield Hills Country Club. Jan is a tall, distinguished gentleman; in his quiet manner, he told me that I was to be decorated again. The King of Sweden had awarded me the insignia of Officer First Class of The Royal Order of the Polar Star of Sweden; the presentation occurred that May at Cranbrook. I was overwhelmed by and delighted with another knighthood; this time in recognition of work done in regard to Carl Milles. His sculptures and reputation had been restored; King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia visited Cranbrook. I was now “Sir Sir”?!
That same year, I was Commencement speaker and made Honorary Doctor of Arts at the Art Institute of Southern California. In October, I was to receive the Founders Medal of Cranbrook…….
The Founders Award
Eliel Saarinen: Kingswood School dining room.
The Founders’ Award is Cranbrook’s highest honor. Awarded 49 times over the last 39 years, it pays tribute to individuals who have been affiliated with Cranbrook and who exemplify the values of Cranbrook and its founders, George and Ellen Booth. On Saturday, October 8, 1994, at the Founders’ Award dinner, I was to be the sole recipient; a rare honor in itself. The first recipients in 1955 were Eliel Saarinen and Carl Milles. The black tie dinner was held at Kingswood; an elegant evening, enhanced by the extraordinary interiors; again, I was humbled and proud.
The chairman of the Board of Trustees, Wayne Lyon, presented the medal; after this speech given Dr. Lillian Bauder, President of Cranbrook Educational Community.
When I arrived at Cranbrook almost twelve years ago, Roy Slade took me for one of his well-known walks. We met on Lone Pine Road, and he led me through the Cranbrook School gate and archway, across the campus, and finished at the Academy's Peristyle. Throughout he spoke of Saarinen's genius, pointing to the asymmetry of design, the elegance and simplicity in execution, the detail and craftsmanship.
As compelling to me as the content of the tour was the passion with which it was given. Roy was able to express in an outpouring of words and gestures understandings of Saarinen and his work on this magnificent campus so that I too -- as new as I was to Cranbrook -- could take them within myself and see this remarkable place afresh every day.
Roy Slade is a wonderful teacher and an impassioned champion for Cranbrook. We have been fortunate to have him here for seventeen and a half years -- more than a quarter of his life, more than a quarter of the Academy's history, and longer as president of the Academy than any one else, including Eliel Saarinen.
Like Saarinen and so many others at our Academy, Roy was well established before he came here. He received his Bachelor of Fine Arts from Cardiff College of Art in Wales, and his Master of Teaching from the University of Wales. For more than a decade he taught art and painting at colleges in Great Britain. He was an accomplished painter also, winning competitions and showing his work in numerous galleries.
In 1967 Roy won a Fulbright-Hays Scholarship to teach painting for a year at the Corcoran School of Art in Washington, DC. He returned to England, but the Corcoran so valued its year with him that it asked him to return a year later as Associate Dean. Roy advanced quickly to become Dean of the school as well as Director of the Corcoran Art Gallery.
In 1977 Arthur Keindl -- then President of Cranbrook Educational Community -- asked Roy to lead our Academy of Art. In Roy's contract, Keindl wrote, "We expect you to devote yourself full-time as a professional artist-administrator to leading the Academy to the highest level of excellence and reputation that you possibly can." In Roy, Keindl and our trustees, governors and artists-in-residence hoped they had found someone with the passion both for art and for teaching, who would recognize Cranbrook's precious heritage and lead the Academy into a renewed era of prominence.
Early in his first year Roy outlined what he hoped to accomplish during his tenure at Cranbrook. First, he pointed to the deteriorating buildings and grounds and the desperate need for restoration.
To the artist, [the beauty and wonder of Cranbrook] are meaningful and inspirational surroundings, like no other in the world, created in order to create. Cranbrook should inspire. Let us respect and care for our surroundings.
Under his leadership, no longer were brick walkways paved over. He repaired and restored the Academy's buildings and courtyards, true always to Saarinen's designs, with no detail escaping his attention. Roy took on the extraordinary restorations of Saarinen House, the Orpheus Fountain and the Triton Pools. With his oversight, cultural properties across the campus were identified, catalogued and conserved -- artwork, furniture, wrought iron gates, even light fixtures like these that were designed by Saarinen.
During this time -- and not entirely by coincidence -- Cranbrook saw a surge of restoration across the rest of the campus as well. Roy didn't lead these efforts, but he helped change the way trustees, governors, administrators, and even the buildings and grounds crews thought about these architectural treasures for which we are stewards. Roy's arrival began a renaissance of caring and restoration for our buildings that continues to this day.
Roy's second hope was to re-establish the Academy as Eliel Saarinen had envisioned it: "...not an art school in the ordinary meaning, [but] a working place for creative art."
When Roy arrived, the Academy's national and international reputation had lessened. An accomplished administrator, Roy knew how to work with artists. His deft hand directed, never controlled. He commanded through humor, eloquence and flair. Over the years, he chose exceptionally fine artists-in-residence, and gave them the support and autonomy they needed to thrive, both as artists and as teachers. He restored not only the Academy's reputation, but also the extraordinary level of artistic achievement that comes from students collaborating with the artists-in-residence, among themselves, and among artistic disciplines. Roy leaves the Academy a teeming, thriving, working place for creative art.
Third, and perhaps most significant, Roy promised "to bring Cranbrook to the world, and the world again to Cranbrook."
He organized numerous exhibitions calling on our extraordinary heritage of art and design, perhaps the most well known of which was Design in America. I will remember always standing with Roy on the steps of the Metropolitan Museum in New York City in 1984 looking up at the exhibition's enormous Saarinen-green banner in the great arch above the front door. Not only a wonderful moment for Cranbrook, this was a great personal triumph for Roy. Unable to contain his own excitement and exuberance, he bounded up the steps and stood under the banner with his arms outstretched, looking at once like a very excited schoolboy and a very triumphant man.
Roy has lectured and sent exhibitions on Cranbrook around the United States and to dozens of countries throughout the world. He has organized alumni events across the country, bringing together the living legacy of artists and designers that continue to carry forward the values and artistic vision inspired by Cranbrook.
Roy has invited well-known contemporary artists to lecture and exhibit here: Yoko Ono, Keith Haring, Duane Hansen and many others. He brought the King and Queen of Sweden, the then Vice President's wife Joan Mondale, and countless other dignitaries to visit and experience the wonder of this architectural and artistic treasure in Michigan.
Roy brought definition and focus to the collections of our Art Museum, also establishing The Cranbrook Collection with work by artists who have studied or worked here, and expanding that collection by more than 1,000 pieces, exclusively through gifts and donations by the artists and other collectors.
In an article looking back on Roy's first ten years, the Detroit Free Press ran the headline, "The Man Who Woke the Giant." Indeed, he had.
In public Roy is flamboyant and larger than life. He is witty, urbane, dramatic, and unforgettable on the dance floor. In private, however, Roy is still a teacher. With his extraordinary eye for art, Roy could have become an art dealer and collector, wealthy many times over. Instead he committed his life to furthering art, art education, and the development of exceptional individuals who can change the way we look at our world. Roy says of art that:
It presents and brings to us enrichment, fulfillment, excitement, contemplation, celebration, shape, light, form, color, texture, pattern, ... space, dimension, tone, touch, sound, ... seduction, pain, pleasure, passion, spirit.
Kindling this flame has been his life's work. And for most of his career, Cranbrook has been his palette. Importantly, Roy has never lost his inner compass, his sense of who he was and why he chose to be here. His creative brilliance, restless energy, exalting laughter and exacting standards have led our Academy through an unparalleled era of rediscovery and renaissance, and for this he has our abiding gratitude, respect and affection.
As many of you know, Roy leaves Cranbrook next month, retiring to his home on Harsen's Island. He will write and read and paint, and he will sail the Great Lakes on his boat the Lady Blue. As Roy leaves Cranbrook stronger for his leadership, so too has he grown here, for such is the influence of this place. In seventeen years, he has mellowed. Roy says freely that he will leave here a finer artist, educator, leader, and human being than when he came. He is joined in retirement by his wife, Agnes. They were married a year ago in Las Vegas, where they rented a red convertible and exchanged vows in a drive-through wedding chapel. In Agnes, Roy has found a lifetime partner. She has made him a very happy man.
We at Cranbrook shall miss Roy. We shall miss Agnes. We shall cherish our memories of them and of his mother, Milla, whom he shared with Cranbrook for several precious years before her death. Roy and Agnes have been and will continue to be an integral part of the Cranbrook family, however, and we look forward to many, many years of their continued friendship. In November, we shall say only au revoir.
The Founders' Award is Cranbrook's single, highest honor. There is no better way to thank Roy and recognize him for all that he has done for Cranbrook than to add him to this list of very special individuals. In so many ways, he embodies and exemplifies the values established for Cranbrook by the Booths -- the love of beauty, the reverence for knowledge and learning, the tireless pursuit of excellence, and the ability to inspire others to pursue these same ideals.
Wayne, it is my pleasure and my privilege to present to you Roy Slade to receive Cranbrook's highest honor, the Founders' Award.
Lillian Bauder October 8, 1994
The founders: George Gough and Ellen Scripps Booth.
Founder's Day Award Speech
RS on accepting the medal.....
"Thank you Lillian. With humility and pride I accept the Founder's Award. I do so, on behalf of many people, individuals who have helped, supported and inspired me over the past eighteen years."
In my remarks, I talked of my role of being that of the conductor of an orchestra playing a great score. ‘My orchestra’ was made up of faculty, staff, students, alumni, curators, governors, trustees, docents, volunteers, Women’s Committee, patrons and friends. I said that Cranbrook is people and place. In this wonderful place, a page can be turned each day; revealing a new detail, carving or vista for Cranbrook is a celebration of architecture, art and life. I thanked alumni for their support that will be evident in an exhibit next month; a selection by curators of work donated during my tenure. I recalled meeting with over thirty alumni for Thanksgiving dinner in Tokyo; all were Japanese, designers and architects, graduates of the Academy. The most distinguished was the Pritzker Award winner, Fumiko Maki, 1952 Architecture; he talked of Cranbrook as if yesterday.
The achievements that I mentioned were The Cranbrook Collection; deSalle Auditorium; Saarinen House restoration; and ‘Design in America’ exhibition and publication. I thanked Lillian Bauder for her support and friendship; I wished her well in her future endeavors. I acknowleged the guidance and love of my late mother, Milla. My wife, Agnes, and our two sons, Chuck and John, and ‘in absentia’, daughter Anne, a Kingswood graduate, were recognized. I expressed gratitude to all those who worked with me, too numerous to mention. Yet, I had to give special thanks to my assistants, Roberta Stewart and Bob Yares, and to my Board chairs; Pat Hartmann, Les Rose and the late Ernie Jones ‘Mister Chairman’. I praised the founders, the Booths, and Eliel Saarinen for creating Cranbrook. Finally, I emphasized the students for their education was our true purpose and mission. I recalled my first visit and seeing Saarinen House and the grounds; I was in awe and humbled.
"That was a moment of humility, becoming aware of the genius of Eliel Saarinen and the glory of Cranbrook. Tonight, again, I am humbled with this awesome award which I accept on behalf of many individuals, knowing that makes me part of the legacy, the place, the people, the wonder that is Cranbrook. I thank you most sincerely."
Roy Slade October 8, 1994
In recent months, I have thought of the question in regard to my entire life and career. How I would like to be remembered is answered in one word, “Teacher”. My life has been about teaching; hoping to share with others the joy and satisfaction that I have gained from art.
From an early age, I have thought of myself as a teacher. In my multitude of careers, I regard myself as an educator. I wished to educate through art: to develop awareness, appreciation and aspirations. Having gained joy and fulfillment from art, I want to share that with others. Art does enrich and ennoble the individual. I wanted to teach because I feel that rather than destroy, it is better to create.
Teaching in high school, my students were encouraged, through creativity and learning, to gain a better sense of color and design. The eye is a muscle, one of the five senses, and can be developed to see more. Through study of color theory and practice, greater awareness of colors is achieved. Working with groups, from children to adults, I have used color as a way of improving visual awareness. Over weeks, students become more visually conscious of the rich nuances and variations of colors. For example, if asked to define red, the usual response is,” Well, you know it’s red”. Then I ask the question of what type of red; a hot or cold red? Confusion exists in the difference between ‘coloring’ and ‘color’. Coloring is what is done in a coloring book; green grass and blue skies. Color is the study of color theory: primary and secondary colors; hot and cold colors; harmonies and discords. Don’t you, dear reader, wish you were in a class with me? I would make you more color conscious. After all, like any other muscle, the eye can be developed, made stronger, more receptive? Perception is more complex than that; again, the individual can be taught and encouraged to see more.
At the Corcoran and at Cranbrook, I was active in the studios. At the Corcoran, I came as a visiting professor in painting; I continued on the faculty and, in 1970, became Dean. I continued to teach. Whenever possible, I would get into the classroom. I had started the Foundation Program; the teaching of basic design. I liked to be in life classes; challenging the students with the moving model or placing the nude within a changing context. As the model moved, so did I; exhorting my students to look, see and draw. The line and gesture of the drawing, the magic of the mark; I urged my students on. At other times, I would return to color; the theory, practice and discovery of the color spectrum. I was a visible presence, even when I became Director.
At Cranbrook, the emphasis was more on learning than teaching for these were graduate students. Nevertheless, as President of the Academy, I continued to teach through individual critiques; student reviews; studio visits; group discussion; my lectures and by example. I was a painter and had a studio in the basement of Saarinen House. I exhibited my work at the nearby Kidd Gallery; I was an active artist. Occasionally, I would go to the informal life class held weekly in the painting department; a nude model was provided with no formal teaching. Students would draw from the model; so would I, sitting alongside the students. In the evenings, I would wander through the studios, talking with the students about their work; I learned a lot, I trust they did?!
The founder, George Booth, envisioned “The faculty being guided by a chief who would be the contact for all…his influence would permeate every studio, exhilarating and appraising all, a living stimulus to achievement and a rebuke to inferiority.”
I tried to fulfill his wish; even within the Museum. As Director, I talked to students about the collections and exhibitions; I lectured on art; I talked to our volunteers, the docents, about the artists and art of the changing exhibitions; I took visitors around the galleries; I shared my enthusiasm and excitement about art and Cranbrook. Appreciation of art can be developed, whether in the class room or the museum. As a museum director, I considered myself an educator; always the teacher.
Nowadays, the same is true as I continue to lecture; jury art shows; write and talk on art, a never ending passion. The following quote from George Booth is carved on an archway at Cranbrook School: “A life without beauty is only half lived”. How ironic, that Lawrence Steiner, used a similar phrase in developing my website. Without knowing that quote, Lawrny introduces my website with the words “A Life of Beauty”; I do agree! I want to share with others that which I have gained from art: enrichment and fulfillment; indeed a life of beauty.